29 дек. 2010 г.

Fabergé. Возрождение легенды

 
 Легендарная марка Fabergé, словно птица Феникс, возрождается к жизни после девяностолетнего отсутствия. Петер Карл Фаберже(Peter Carl Fabergé) вынужден был бежать из революционной России, а дело всей его жизни было разрушено и разграблено. К счастью, слава Fabergé всегда жила в памяти людей во всём мире. Началом её второй жизни служит решение Марка Дунхила(Mark Dunhill), главного директора Pallinghurst Resources, купившего права на имя “Fabergé”, вернуть его первоночальное значение – компании, производящей прекрасные изделия из драгоценных камней. Первая коллекция состоит из трёх основных тем, вдохновляющих ещё в своё время Петера Карла Фаберже на произвидения искусства: Цветы Фаберже(Les Fleurs de Fabergé), Народные Русские Сказки Фабержe(Les Fables de Fabergé) и Животные Фаберже(Les Fauves de Fabergé). К сожалению, знаменитые пасхальные яйца Фабержe отсутсвуют в первом каталоге. Хотелось бы увидеть в следующей коллекции возрождение и этой легенды! Открытие первого магазина состоялось 9 сентября 2009 года в Женеве. Также увидeть коллекцию и заказать понравившуюся модель можно на сайте www.faberge.com.

28 дек. 2010 г.

Alexander TEREXOV

Alexander Terekhov was born in Vyazniki Vladimir Oblast (Russia). His professional education was a fashion designer at the Institute of Fashion and Design with a degree in costume design, and successfully graduated in 2001. In 1999 he won second place in the contest "Russian Silhouette" with a collection of "Twilight" and was sent for training in the company «Yves Saint Laurent».
Alexander's debut collection was first presented as part of Fashion Week in Moscow. Then he held his second show at Olimpus Fashion Week in New York and opened his first boutique brand «TEREXOV» in Los Angeles.

In 2002, the designer created a series of suits singer Alsou for concerts from the series "The Trilogy". In addition, the designer later designed costumes for groups «Reflex» and "Cream." In 2003, the designer held a solo exhibition of his sketches.
Only in 2007, the fashion designer opened his first boutique in Moscow. Since 2009, the model Terekhova were sold in the showroom Tutti Frutti in Milan.
On the occasion of the Year of France in Russian fashion designer Alexander Terekhov presented his own booth with a pre-spring-summer 2011 at the annual exhibition PRET A PORTER PARIS ®, held from 4 to 7 September in the exhibition space of the Porte de Versailles in Paris.
At the moment, Alexander is the only Russian designer seasonally presenting their new collections in the New York Fashion Week. Talent Terekhova was repeatedly reinforced by the successful sale of its products worldwide. The best-known admirers of his talent are Petrina Khashoggi (Petrina Khashoggi) and Angelina Jolie (Angelina Jolie), who have repeatedly appeared at various events in dresses, created by Alexander Terekhov.



The official site of Alexander Terekhov: www.terexov.com

26 дек. 2010 г.

"Russian fashion" interview with Valentin Yudashkin Channel 5

What do we mean by fashion? Can distinguish "Pret-a-porter" of "haute couture"? What are the features of the national fashion? Can our designers to compete with Western?


These issues will be discussed in Valentine's Day with Valentin Yudashkin. Will not stand aside and his new collection of military uniforms for the Russian army.


Our program takes part in:
fashion, People's Artist of Russia, member of the Russian Academy of Arts, Knight of Art and Literature of the French Republic Valentin Yudashkin.


Nick:
It so happened that was not the first year in St. Petersburg on this day his new collection shows Valentin Yudashkin. But tell me why this day?


Valentin Yudashkin:
Happened. We got to St. Petersburg for the first time that day, it was for us a new holiday, cute, cute. We do love the holidays, even strangers, and kinder than a holiday, so it's probably better. That is why we are here today. I'm glad to have the opportunity at least once a year to see the St. Petersburg audience, my many friends who live here and show their latest work.


Nick:
Let's understand the terminology.


Valentin Yudashkin:
Many years ago I arrived, we just show up for the first time in France, in Paris. And it was a new word, just like the word "vintage", which is now many do not understand. Haute Couture - a unique clothes, unique clothing from the author, the artist who created it. It's as if he painted portraits, painted a picture molded sculpture. That is, a unique authoring clothes that actually made one copy and 80% manually.


Nick:
If I remember correctly, you are a specialist in the history of fashion. And as far as I know, in the early twentieth century shops just started coming into fashion. Before this all came to the dressmaker in person and there were sewing. No one was willing to pay, and then shops started to appear. Now people are accustomed to the fact that all the clothes we are ready, and few can afford and have time to sew. So what is your ready-made clothes is different from the sea, ready-made clothing, which hangs over all stores, if they do something different? I do not mean specifically your ...


Valentin Yudashkin:
Of course, different. First, the dress. We began with haute couture, then there is a unique studios, workshops that develop unique clothes. That is, we seek only to create and adapt the best ideas are already in the factories. After that we start to work already with the big campaigns, with the production of textile workers, to adapt the idea to use a cost-effective to have at least a small stream, and people could see the clothes, not only in magazines and on the podium, but in shops and boutiques. There are different categories of prices, and would seem to have the same "name" for some reason the price is somewhere cheaper, more economical, different cities and countries in the production of clothing. We see that there is a nominal clothing in China and Turkey, to say nothing of France and Italy. That is, it is a great work of the company, which has its own policy, its face and its plans for the business.


Viewer Question:
All my life I worked as a cutter and sewing all my life for the population. I worked in Peterhof. But here's the model look Yudashkin, they are unacceptable and that sky-high, we must work harder for the population, then we drove this foreign market.


Nick:
What do you mean for ordinary people?

Viewer Question:
For seniors, complete. Very few models, even in the magazine Burda, one - two models can be found, and all.

Valentin Yudashkin:
Well, it's a great question, but few are familiar with our mass products. Therefore, television, and reporters want, of course, to see the most beautiful and unusual image. A ready-made clothes few people are interested because it is sold in stores, so we do not just ordinary clothes, but we also produce about 50 - 70 000 jeans. And we count on young people as a great Russia and in neighboring countries ...

Nick:
A ready-made clothes, dresses you up to what size?

Valentin Yudashkin:
Up to 54 size.

Nick:
And by age? How a grown man can afford anything? At what age you are targeting?

Valentin Yudashkin:
To 50, say so. But, after all, a woman in the last 15 - 20 years was much younger. We see it. Age - a state of mind. A woman has changed, it became more athletic, has become more self love, treat yourself differently. We're not just talking about those drugs that have appeared on the market and become available. Just a woman became a trail, going to sports clubs, to move away from the stove and think about the figure. And we have other words, we now think of organic kitchen, do not want to have a lot of fat, we want to look normal. We even celebrate another holiday home, there is none like it was before. Plus, we had eaten. We have become more choosy. And women, of course, began to change its size. And over the past 10 years has changed even dimensional grid. So 10 years, we have removed precisely. This helps, of course, clothing. What to say about women, if men have changed. We could not previously see men in pink tie, pink shirt, purple sweater. Previously it was generally unclear. In bright red pants ... Now it's all made possible, we can see on the streets, it's not the young boys are men who want to be pulled up, they spend more time in the fitness club, hairdressers and demanding of himself, at times, more than women.

Viewer Question:
I am concerned about the issue of wedding dresses, what trends are evident in terms of wedding dresses?

Viewer Question:
Today, many stores represent the products of leading brands, but even in spite of their higher price, we often can only get low quality fake. Advise, how can we distinguish them from the original?

Nick:
Is there a fashion for wedding dresses?

Valentin Yudashkin:
Of course, there's fashion. So many new technologies, fabrics, but all the same wedding dress for girls remains a dream. There are two things in life, this prom and wedding gown. I think, of course, is your imagination is boundless. Your wedding, your girlfriend, your invitations, as laid your desk, we now have to have the wedding service, there are the organizers of weddings, but, more importantly, my personal advice, stay in a wedding dress is very young and that you will remember it forever. I do not like wedding dresses, which give excess age, huge, big hair, a fundamental attitude. Adolescence is probably the most important thing in this. Who published several times married, a council, probably a few others.

Nick:
And how do you feel about veil?

Valentin Yudashkin:
Veil, tiaras, crowns, different ornaments in her hair and color, not just white, I have been instances, and light blue dress, someone even came out in black and the groom was in white. I think that a wedding - this whole show, which you, in the first place, arrange for yourself, for life, would like to see these pictures please you, you open them and remembered how it was you perfectly.

Nick:
There are people who want a wedding dress and then to ordinary life or the dress, which must be put in the trunk, and granddaughters then show ...

Valentin Yudashkin:
I must have a second part to show. but the dress should be, if possible, new, yours, because happiness is not for hire.

Nick:
You, as a professional on what to watch on line?

Valentin Yudashkin: Lots of questions, I spoke with our law firm, now found a fake, which is in China, New York, it's nice for as long as things are at least consistent quality. If you do not hurt the consumer and does not affect the image of the campaign in the name of a campaign, even on something we can close my eyes, but when it's bad quality, things do not correspond to any idea, any notions of fashion, horrible fabric, Moldy - is awful, because every time we have to justify to the consumers, to those people who we believed and gave money for this thing.

Nick:
It is no secret that many fashion houses, they can be sewn in China, but may be qualitative. That is, that thing is sewn in China, does not mean that it is fake.

Valentin Yudashkin:
First of all, it's authenticity and authorship, and the artist, now a very popular thing I've seen in many countries, many Western campaigns poshivayut us, famous campaigns that are making the first line, are unique. The main thing is the fight against counterfeiting, more often than we do, if the movies, in music, these issues are raised, we have always been distinguished by the fact that we sewed fake Levis, Wrangler and many are worn, they were our southern republic, southern Russia. Now I'm busy working with the counterfeit.

Nick:
We heard that we even have a counterfeit bread.

Viewer Question:
Tell me, when will we finally will be our fashion magazines? We sew, too many women have sewn with pleasure sew. we want magazines with patterns! Why log without drawing! It is not necessary. We look at these beautiful, lovely ladies, it's nice, but we can not buy, but I would like to sew.

Valentin Yudashkin:
In France there is a whole system, turn to fashion houses, they are after their collections, not in the same season, but next season they sell patterns, you can buy a packet of patterns, they look at fashion houses and there are women of different shapes, they adapt themselves to and many want to sew themselves and be individual, so this issue is. I can please you, there is such a big campaign, both Russian and international. who in their package begin to have not only western branding glossy magazines and, of course, open up and own. I think. Now that a lot of fashion publications Russian begin to adapt, they give us more understandable, more interesting ... But as long as they do not survive, because as long as everyone lives in the advertising budgets of western campaigns. There are large holdings, who can afford to open their own branding Russian glossy magazines, and I think this is the future. We both want everything fast. I need your love, if you can help, as they will know more, then we have a very strong pack of artists.

Viewer Question:
To date, we have many politicians look haute couture, for example, German Gref and his famous ties. but, unfortunately, in my opinion, not everyone can boast of quite a glamorous look. how would you rate the overall appearance of our politicians?

Nick:
Do you like the boring blue tie Mr. Medvedev?

Valentin Yudashkin:
Firstly, it is not boring, it is stylish, nice silk tie. It's not even that. I believe that as a politician, to lead, to a journalist, it is important to hear it, but were not considered. The fact that he is in good clothes, and that is sending information, which wants to give us a politician, I think we should hear it. if he will dress up very nice, bright, glamorous, trendy, then the first 5 minutes, we will consider, watches, cufflinks ... It's nice that we like, dressed like our politicians, they are dressed decently, modestly.

Nick:
The most interesting thing that we do not like it when they are badly dressed, badly dressed as a woman ...

Valentin Yudashkin:
I think that now men look worthy of its age, its Current position and I think that men are somehow not welcome in costume or even to tie. He should be dressed modestly ...

Nick:
But in general remained a saying that meet on clothes?


Valentin Yudashkin:
I think yes. Because for me, especially since I found while total deficit and the problems when unique teachers, professors, doctors with basic education remains one of the feature, they could not afford to buy a new suit or a tie to change, and to condemn had on the costume - it's awful. Therefore, I think, perhaps, was precisely that, because for me it is very important that in the eyes, a tongue that comes from within and how the person is emotional and interesting, because everything else later.

Viewer Question:
A few days ago there was information that in Chechnya, Ramzan Kadyrov's decision to enter almost mandatory headscarves for all women. how do you think, as a person who is engaged in a fashion professional, you're doing a fashion in our country, is it reasonable now to introduce some policies of the government order, or even in terms of fashion or she must still live by their own laws to anyone not obeying the .

Viewer Question:
You know, as a rather intimate fashion. Will you have some kind of public, large-format brands, which will be available to a wide range of consumers? If yes, what is planned for brands this spring and summer?

Valentin Yudashkin:
I like a man traveling the world, I have been to many countries and Muslim, and Jewish, and very interesting Buddhist, everywhere there is a national costume. People are proud, they are proud and religion, roots, traditions, national. You come to Dubai, I have many clients there and sell a lot of European stuff in there. When, for example, to me a fitting comes girl dressed entirely in black, but inside she wore jeans, a great shirt. it in the car, she arrives in Paris, undressing and in line with European standards of living. Let's be tolerant, very calm. I think that fashion - it's like music, like a movie, if it is of interest but it will be inside every girl, women, and this will be their thing. What is happening inside, I think that if there is such traditions, we must wear a headscarf. As for brands, I can say one thing for two years we do a line Yudashkin Jeans. This economical line that loves youth, it is very volume, formatted, where you can buy street clothes, jackets, jeans, shirts. We are open throughout the country. There is a new line Yudashkin Jeans Collection. It is slightly more expensive. I love jeans. It is very convenient and comfortable clothes.

Nick:
I noticed that people who still remember the Soviet Union, we podsazheny to this love of the West. We want something imported. I know young people today who wear patriotic clothing and no this is nothing.

Valentin Yudashkin:
Somehow Muscovites or Petersburgers differ from European or American? nothing, because all the young people dressed as dressed in New York and Milan, they have one music, one slang. If it's trendy, fashionable, comfortable and accessible - they do not care where it is sewn.

Viewer Question:
What is the fashion now is for men from 20 to 30 years? At the moment, clothes that you are on your production or someone else?

Valentin Yudashkin:
I'll start with the last question. Of course, everything I wear from hours to T-shirts, sweaters, jeans - it's all their own production. Regarding the second question, as it should be dressed man, this is h where I started, that men now have more actin in vogue. This is what so many men now began to work in offices, so the office style, management style - is, of course, suit, still in vogue, as we have more to work with computers and spend more time in office, then certainly , the tie goes to the more formal clothes. Change the style of Friday, because many work on Friday and Saturday, it's more casual, that is already allowed to come in a sweater, jeans, t-shirt, to be more comfortable. Plus, the men began to wear more bright colors, beige, white, in this season a lot of olive oil, a lemon shades, brighter, more leisure. And cruise shades - dark navy blue. Shades of dark nights, instead of black, we offer a dark blue.


Nick:
Tell me, was there something there for you when you started to do a military uniform, something special for you? This is also a special story costume ... Was there something that you never thought of?

Valentin Yudashkin:
Probably, many thanks to the Department of Defense, primarily because for us it was open to all museums, have access to unique instances of books and materials. We saw the stage of the great Russian army. We took as a basis, something of Suvorov, something from the Soviet era, was the color of his tunic were. Unique things, a victory parade when he came Zhukov, these things are very important. Modern young soldier should feel this form, it must look good ...

Nick:
Well, breeches with boots this beautiful it was!
Valentin Yudashkin: breeches with boots have only a guard of honor.

Viewer Question:
Why is the shape we're going to sew on the basis of domestic and tissues, and plants, and for fashion shows, we take imported fabrics and accessories?

Viewer Question:
How can I look up with fashion trends woman with magnificent forms?

Viewer Question:
We now have in Russia baby boom, the nonet of children's fashion magazines with the same pattern, so that the children something to sew.

Nick:
There are children's fashion shops, are so expensive that just awful! About the domestic, today you show, the collection called Elizabeth. I understand that this will be something very beautiful, but you import?

Valentin Yudashkin:
We have many fabrics to make their own designs around the world, but otshivaetsya and made it only at home. We can not afford to make a unique collection somewhere, this is our know-how and our technology, we are doing at home. Women's range, as well as women are very volatile, they want today, flowers, vasilechka tomorrow, tomorrow, not pink, and blue ... I hope that we still put our best plants, because there is experience of our many textile campaigns from Ivanovo to Vologda who know and are able to work with textiles, silk plants too. If we're talking about fashion, then we are ready economically. If we are instructed to change clothes army, we had a lot of problems of economic, we now can think about the appearance. We are happy people, because 10 years ago we could not even dream about it, we missed it, it was not for money. This is a very significant step on the form, people will want to sew at home, put the factory and open.

Nick:
About the magnificent forms again we say?

Valentin Yudashkin:
The main thing is not to think about it. It all depends on the internal state. I have many friends pretty, plump, they are charming and beautiful, but they are confident. Therefore, we can wear what to wear and can thin ...

Nick:
But not to be a laughing stock ...


Valentin Yudashkin:
Feel should be in everything and not go after fashion magazines to stay stylish and understand where to wear these things.

Viewer Question:
As for the women of magnificent forms, I treat them. For many years, women sewed for their families, for themselves. all well-known fashion designers create things with their hands, is very prestigious and buy such a thing is considered prestigious in the society. why lately, and how to change this prevailing view that if a woman is to create something with their hands, sew for myself, is considered the poverty line. How to change this view?

Viewer Question:
I am a war veteran, the Leningrad front, the legendary road of life, disability. Help me, please book somewhere in a velvet dress for the holidays for decorations for medals. I was so, but it was old. And I would like black velvet, I have 54 size, please help me.

Valentin Yudashkin:
Tell specifically for your program, once I am a guest and we are with the company BTC groups - so here we are for you to make the Victory Day costume. Please leave your phone, we'll help you get a suit by May 9, show then tell us and come for a visit. Leave your contact information, all will be at its best.

Nick:
Thank you. I did not know that such requests will be on the air. And now for the first question.

Valentin Yudashkin:
Fantastic, you know how to sew. You must be the envy of many, there is nothing to be ashamed of this. Now is not the time when we started the fashion industry, when there was no piece of fabric or material. no buttons. Now for your creativity - lots of opportunities. Buy fabric, fantasy, sew, you are unique and can not find any similar thing, and all friends will envy you.

Nick:
This year is special for you, anniversary?

Valentin Yudashkin:
20 years old house. In 1988 it all started the year.

Nick:
That is, when the Soviet government. Tell me how you personally changed the time for fashion? That's 20 years ago, opening the house, what were you thinking?

Valentin Yudashkin:
First of all, we all lived the same life ... starting a new journalism, new life, their own businesses, their own campaigns, the successes few people thought. Think of how to survive. I want to thank the public, because then we do not know what a business. We did not realize that this can make money. So all this with love, because we were then on the business people, and now everything is as it is not delivered at this level. And thank you for those years, because only love and your faith is given the opportunity to create a collection.

Nick:
For 20 years you have a job is that you should not surprise us, what is it?

Valentin Yudashkin:
Hard. And surprisingly, that over the years has changed the economy. When I received the title of National Artist, which I handed Vladimir Vladimirovich, I realized that we had in 1988 could not even think that we have both state and society will turn to fashion, and we feel ourselves worthy of the international arena.

25 дек. 2010 г.

Russian folk toy

The history of popular toys begins in ancient times. It is associated with the work of the people, with folk art, with folklore. Toy - one of the oldest forms of art over the centuries it changed along with the whole popular culture, absorbing its national characteristics and identity.


The basic material for the manufacture of toys were clay and wood, but since the early 19 th century - a papier-mache. The wizard also toys and straw, moss, spruce cones, flax. As clay and wooden toys are made in many places in Russia. You can specify the most important points: wooden toy more to do in Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod province, clay - in Vyatka, Thule, Kargopol.



Many of the ladies crafts exist to this day. The largest center of the wooden toys have long been Sergiev Posad to the adjacent villages. In toys, Sergiev Posad dominated genre pictures, figurines ladies and hussars, the monks. Very interesting in form and coloring were "ladies-fools" (as they called themselves artisans), 30-40 cm tall, they were cut from the so-called "trihedral". From one side to obtain the "spin", and two other faces that converge at an angle, were treated like the master of high relief.



Nemnogotsvetnaya conventional painting created a distinctive artistic image. According to the plot and style with the "ladies" and "hussars" related sculptural miniatyurki - "Chinese coins. This tiny, painted wooden figures, the size of 4-5 cm, varied and interesting in their subjects.


Another wooden toy toy center, formed later in the early 18 th century, the village was Bogorodskaya, which became a major fishing wooden toys. Bogorodskaya thread and now occupies a significant place in the decorative arts. BOGORODSKII master, passing from generation to generation the traditions of his art, have created toys peculiar, unique.


Perfectly using the artistic expressiveness texture and color of the tree, the master skillfully combine in the game smooth surface finish and cutting with shallow grooves, which they pass on different items. For Bogorodsk toys typical story, group compositions, genre scenes, masters often used a fabulous and historical themes. Many toys are made by moving, which increases their expressiveness.


The art of folk toys a major center of production of wooden toys and child was, and Nizhny Novgorod province, in many of its regions - Gorodetsky, Semenov, Fedoseev - carved and painted toys. The main plot Gorodets toys - horse in harness. Conciseness of these toys has created a kind of stilizovannost form. The coloring of these toys is close to the coloring of baby furniture, chests, tueskov who created the glory Gorodetsky mural.


Expanding toys lush colors, fantastic scenes, the wizard was not afraid to mix the most unusual and bright colors. The most widely used from time immemorial had clay toys. In clay toys of different areas have much in common: the unity of the plot, the proximity of the forms and ornamentation. And yet, every fish brought in a toy something of their own.


Clay toys Of particular interest is Dymkovo toy by name Dymkovo suburb near the city of Kirov. Dymkovo range of toys are extremely varied: the mistress, nurse, riders, hussars, fantastic birds and animals, multi-narrative compositions. Simplistically, concise Dymkovo plastic toys appropriate to the nature of decorative painting, is striking in its brilliance, originality.


Clay toys, Voronezh, Tula, and Arkhangelsk regions in appearance differ from each other, but they all have extraordinary clarity and simplicity of form, beauty and fantasy.
The best examples of folk toys learn to contemporary artists, and learn to seek wisdom in the simplicity and learn to mastery of the material.

21 дек. 2010 г.

ДРЕВНЕРУССКОЕ ИСКУССТВО


ДРЕВНЕРУССКОЕ ИСКУССТВО

Самым древним местом поселения славян в Европе является побережье среднего Дуная. Отсюда часть их расселилась по Дунаю, ближе к Чёрному морю, другая двинулась к северу Европы, заняла побережье балтийского моря и его острова; треть через Карпаты двинулась в северо-восточном направлении и осела по берегам Днепра и его притоков. Постепенно расселяясь, славяне дошли на севере до озера Ильмень и Финского залива. Задолго до начала 
9 в., когда о славянах появляются первые упоминания в истории, они уже жили вдоль торгового пути, пролегавшего по рекам через всю Россию с торговыми центрами в городах Киеве и Новгороде.


Упоминания о славянах, совершавших морские набеги на византийцев, появляются в первой половине 9 века. Христианство, проникавшее на южные окраины Руси уже в эпоху Аскольда, при Святославе получило право гражданства. Мать князя, Ольга, сменила языческую веру на православную, а ее внук Владимир решился сделать христианство государственной религией.

Послы Владимира, побывав за морем, стали склоняться к византийской вере. Это решение оказало огромное влияние на дальнейшее развитие искусства в России. Характер первых каменных построек также был византийским. Искусство, поначалу черпавшее вдохновение непосредственно из греческих истоков, оказалось под новым мощным воздействием, надолго обусловившим его судьбы.

Киевские церкви времен Ольги и Владимира не сохранились. Некоторые из них сгорели, другие были разрушены татарами. Самым древним памятником 11 века, дошедшим до наших дней, считается софийский собор, построенный великим князем Ярославом. Св. София горела два раза, но часть стен храма с мозаиками и даже фресками уцелела. Живопись сохранилась до наших дней только потому, что долгое время была закрыта штукатуркой более поздних эпох. Киево-Печерская лавра, построенная в конце xi веке, не сохранилась в своем первоначальном виде. Она стала одним из первых русских монастырей.

На севере Руси возводились деревянные храмы. Даже в таком городе, как Новгород, первый софийский собор был деревянным. Из Византии были выписаны мастера – ремесленники, знавшие общие законы архитектуры однотипных церквей. Выстроив в Новгороде софийский собор, они создали образец для дальнейших сооружений подобного рода. Вместе с этими мастерами в Новгород пришли и живописцы («писари»). Одной из особенностей новгородских, как и древних киевских, церквей являются голосники: горшки или кувшины, горизонтально вмазанные в стену для поглощения и отражения звука. На западе отдельные колокольни не возводили. У нас в глубокой древности было принято привешивать колокола отдельно на деревянном срубе. Позднее каменные колокольни стали воздвигать отдельно от собора

               

ИСКУССТВО РУССКОГО СЕВЕРА
 На севере Руси возводились деревянные храмы. Даже в таком городе, как Новгород, первый софийский собор был деревянным. Из Византии были выписаны мастера – ремесленники, знавшие общие законы архитектуры однотипных церквей. Выстроив в Новгороде софийский собор, они создали образец для дальнейших сооружений подобного рода. Вместе с этими мастерами в Новгород пришли и живописцы («писари»). Одной из особенностей новгородских, как и древних киевских, церквей являются голосники: горшки или кувшины, горизонтально вмазанные в стену для поглощения и отражения звука. На западе отдельные колокольни не возводили. У нас в глубокой древности было принято привешивать колокола отдельно на деревянном срубе. Позднее каменные колокольни стали воздвигать отдельно от собора.

ВЛАДИМИРО-СУЗДАЛЬСКОЕ КНЯЖЕСТВО
Новое великое владимиро-суздальское княжество активно соперничало с Киевом, чье могущество уже клонилось к упадку. На новых храмах владимирского княжества сказалось, прежде всего, влияние романского стиля, процветавшего в ту пору на западе.

После разорения Киева Батыем, когда русская церковь озаботилась поисками безопасного пристанища, киевские митрополиты стали чаще наведываться во Владимир. Наконец там была устроена постоянная резиденция, сохранившая за собой прежнее название.

Дмитриевский собор – самая интересная владимирская церковь конца 12 века. Он довольно хорошо сохранился. Он был построен иностранными мастерами.

                             НАЧАЛО МОСКОВСКОГО ЦАРСТВА
Период возвышения владимиро-суздальской Руси был непродолжителен. Центром «собирания Руси» суждено было стать Москве. В результате междоусобиц князей и нападений татар Москва сгорала до основания несколько раз. По преданию, первой церковью кремля на Бороницком холме была церковь рождества предтечи с патриаршим двором митрополита Петра. Несколько позднее, в 1330 году, Иван Калита заложил первый каменный собор спаса на бору. В первоначальном виде этот собор не сохранился (по окончании работ он горел, затем поляки, опять пожар, французы превратили его в конюшню). Перед коронацией императора Александра третьего целая провели капитальную реставрацию собора.

Перед кремлем расположена красная площадь с лобным местом. Она может быть названа одним из самых интересных исторических мест Москвы.

На площади возле Спасских ворот возвышается самое оригинальное и интересное здание древнерусского зодчества – собор покрова богородицы, известный в народе под именем Василия блаженного. Храм был построен в 1555-1561 гг. Зодчими Бармой и Постником. Это необычное здание, в котором удивительным образом сочетаются разные стили. Весь храм кажется нагромождением террас, на которых словно собраны несколько церквей разных размеров, стилей, цветов и форм.

К западу от кремля расстилается девичье поле. С одной стороны к полю прилегает Новодевичий монастырь, основанный в 1525 году. Его построили в память об освобождении от врагов Смоленска.
                                             РУССКАЯ ИКОНОПИСЬ
Археологи обычно различают три вида древнерусской иконописи. Новгородский с большими пробелами на платьях, в сугубо греческом духе; московский с золотом и суздальский с пробелами в виде тоненьких бликов. Однако все они представляют собой незначительные варианты византийского искусства.
В первые века христианства в живописи преобладала символика. После падения Рима центр христианского искусства переместился в Византию.

Канон иконописной живописи был выработан еще в 10-11 вв. Художники искали образец, а, выработав его, впоследствии только повторяли; канон становился обязательным, и отступление от него строго запрещалось. 
Живопись «аль-фреско» по сырой извести требовала высокой скорости работы, так как роспись нельзя было исправить.
В конце 16 века появилось два вида живописи – московский, строгого стиля и строгановский, отличавшийся яркостью красок и золота.
Самыми первыми русскими художниками были иконописцы, заимствовавшие технику письма у греческих мастеров церковной живописи, которые появились на Руси после введения христианства.
Первый художник, биография которого дошла до нас, был монахом Киево-Печерской лавры. Олимпий жил в 12 веке и был причислен церковью к лику святых.
В начале 15 века появился знаменитый монах-живописец Андрей Рублёв, расписавший церковь благовещения во Владимире - на –Клязьме и благовещенский собор в московском кремле. Работы Рублёва считаются превосходнейшими произведениями; по постановлению стоглавого собора (1551) они стали обязательными образцами для подражания.